bridge member definition

Finishing high enough in a qualifying session to continue competing in the final session(s) of the event. EXIT. Showing of features in a hand through the bidding commences usually when a suit is agreed on and a game is assured. DISTRIBUTION. Guide cards are used for Howell movement pairs games, team games and individual contests. This is not illegal or a breach of proprieties but can have a negative effect on a partnership. (2) A board in a team match in which the result is the same at both tables or, in Swiss teams, with a difference of only 10 points (as plus 110 compared to plus 100). Cards ranking below the jack, from the 10 down to the 2. At tournaments, the entry blanks are used to control seating assignments, in particular to assure proper seeding (certain entries are set aside for known expert players so that in multi-section events, the top players do not end up in one or two sections). BOARD-A-MATCH SWISS TEAMS. IN BACK OF. The player who receives the highest card becomes dealer. In duplicate and Chicago, the award is 500 if vulnerable, 300 if not vulnerable. ♠ 3                                     ♠ A 6 5 If two or more trumps are played on the same trick, the highest trump card played wins the trick. PLAYER NUMBER. The bonus for a grand slam, 1000 points when not vulnerable and 1500 when vulnerable, make a grand slam, bid and made, one of the best-rewarded accomplishments at rubber bridge, and one of the more effective methods of shooting at duplicate. He leads from either hand, and finesses by playing low from the opposite hand. In a competitive auction, to make a bid that the opponents do not contest. ALERTING. Any card of the trump suit remaining after all other players’ cards of the suit have been played. The dealer then completes the cut by placing the part of the pack that was originally on the bottom above the part originally on the top. The word derives from slough, to cast off and is almost always used in the context of a “ruff and a sluff.”. ACBL’s Player of the Year is determined on platinum points earned in a calendar year. PRIMARY VALUES. What allows an arch bridge to span greater distances than a beam bridge, or a suspension bridge to stretch over a distance seven times that of an arch bridge? The general term for efforts by a host unit at a bridge tournament to make the players feel more comfortable and welcome. REPEATED FINESSE. GAME BONUS. Sometimes the term refers to an unstopped suit, but if a notrump contract is being considered, it could also apply to a suit in which the opponents hold nine or more cards and in which declarer has only one stopper. Related: Distributional Point Count. With some exceptions, a bid is limited and non-forcing if it is in notrump, if it is a raise, if it is a preference or if it is a minimum rebid in a suit previously bid by the same player. (4) Board. mimz flesh, Skr. Generally referred to in connection with opening leads. Suppose West leads the ♠2. Diagonal members which run outwards are under compression stress while the inner diagonals face tensile stress. Queens and jacks, which may well have no role in the play, as distinct from “hard values,” i.e., aces and kings. FREE FINESSE. (3) Starting with nothing, as in “starting from scratch.”, SCREEN. Frequently the term is used in connection with a hand of little strength but with great length in a particular suit. NUMBER. (5) As an avoidance play. BOOK. To capture or “drop” an outstanding high card, as in picking up or dropping a doubleton queen offside by playing the ace and king rather than taking an available finesse. There is a difference of opinion about what constitutes a broken sequence. Each suit has 13 cards, ranked from the ace to the deuce. (1) The opponents at the table on a deal, set of deals or rubber; (2) the contestants in direct competition (in some cases, pairs sitting the same direction as you), (3) the balance of the field, (4) the other team in a head-on team event. A part of a session of bridge at a tournament during which the players and the boards remain at a table. In duplicate, the cards may be placed into any pocket. This can apply when responding to an opening bid or to the action of balancing. JACK. CASH. (1) Down in a contract – “He was two light.” (2) Fewer than standard values, especially in opening the bidding. Rank and suit of these cards determine the makeup of the first partnerships, and the original dealer. RIGHT-HAND PLAYER. The term is borrowed from such games as two-handed pinochle and French whist, in which it is permissible to revoke. WINNER. Also, specifically aces and kings. In team play, a board in which the two scores are identical and therefore do not affect the score – known as a “push.”. The dealer speaks first in the auction by bidding or passing. FORCING REBID. TOP HONOR. In general, at tournaments, the larger the field and the more expert the competitors (as in the Kaplan Blue Ribbon Pairs), the greater the masterpoint award will be for those who place in the overall. SECONDARY VALUES. The concept was first broached by Hall of Famer Bobby Wolff during his tenure as president of the ACBL in 1987. GRASS ROOTS. A bridge player of inferior ability. REDOUBLE. A bid with wide limits in valuation. A term used to describe a hand with useful intermediate cards such as 10s, nines and eights. A bid lower than the value of the hand warrants. Among the foremost inventors of these problems was Paul Lukacs of Israel. 10 Dec. 2020. A rebid by the opening bidder to show sufficient values for game even if responder has a minimum for his action. Over 1,500 bidding and hand play exercises as well as dozens of Bridge video lessons, a wide variety of topics, easy to understand , suitable for all levels. If West has the king, the queen will win, and South will avoid a club loser. These adjustments are referred to as average-plus and average-minus. (1) To distribute the 52 cards at contract; (2) the privilege of thus distributing the cards; (3) the act of dealing; (4) the cards themselves when distributed. If West leads the ♦Q, declarer lets him hold the trick; if West leads the ♦2, declarer wins the king, draws trumps, leads a diamond and ducks West’s queen. If one pair earns a top, their opponents must score zero points or a bottom. BLANK HAND. Nowhere has this been more apparent than in notrump bidding. (f) (Math.) KISS OF DEATH. (1) Noun: the appropriate moment for a player to make a bid or play, as in “It’s your turn to bid;”(2) verb: to quit a card at duplicate or a trick at rubber bridge (turn it over) after all four players have played; (3) verb: to take a trick, as “We turned six tricks against 3♠.”. Nor can West profitably shift to diamonds. The hand of the declarer, as distinct from the open hand, now legally referred to as the dummy. PASS OUT or THROW IN. Very poor cards (British colloquialism). It usually refers to an endplay against a defender (as in a “throw-in”) or to a declarer who is forced to win a trick in the dummy hand, when he has high cards established in his own hand, which he is unable to enter. Hands are never redealt at duplicate except in special cases on the director’s instructions. However, this preference is considerably modified by information derived from the bidding and play, and it is the policy of good players to obtain as much information as possible, inferential as well as exact, before committing themselves. A procedure by which declarer takes ruffs in his own hand – which usually has longer trumps than dummy – rather than the dummy. As an adjective, an expert player, partnership or team. A hand with a suit at least six cards long that contains no other suit with more than three cards. Flat and square are also used to describe such a hand. LOCKED (IN OR OUT OF A HAND). For example, supposed you have a two-way guess for a queen – K-J-8-3 opposite A-10-5-4. FORWARD GOING. The Laws (68A) defines a claim this way: “Any statement to the effect that a contestant will win a specific number of tricks is a claim of those tricks. WEAK TWO-BID. An action not in accordance with the rules and mechanics of the game. CRACK. It is usually declarer’s hand, but sometimes, when declarer’s trumps are more valuable for ruffing, dummy is made the master hand as in a dummy reversal. SLUFF. At a suit contract, the same may be said with the exception that losers may possibly be ruffed. A card or combination of cards that may reasonably be expected to or actually does stop the run of a suit. A term borrowed from poker meaning the hand betting immediately after the dealer. A deliberate breach of a system agreement. Among the forms that hospitality takes are souvenir programs and pencils; free juice, coffee or soft drinks; after-game refreshments; between-sessions buffets and even dinners; after-session dancing; morning tours to places of local interest; style shows and brunches; panel discussions; daily bulletins, etc. Some players exposed all four hands, thus giving rise to the modern usage. This bonus is either 100 or 150 points. The clockwise order in which actions take place at the bridge table. The bidding ends when, after the dealer’s initial bid, there are three consecutive passes. Guide cards may be in the form of printed instruction cards remaining permanently at each table (suitable only for cyclic movements) or they may be in the form of separate cards to be hand-carried by each contestant (suitable for either cyclic or non-cyclic movements). Generally, trusses are made of steel. BID. Since 1992, in ACBL contests, any margin is a win. While the general tendency among rubber bridge players is to avoid bidding grand slams except in ironclad situations, the mathematics of the game suggest rather freer acceptance of the risks involved in view of the large rewards. MISBOARD. To win a trick in a hand from which it is disadvantageous to make the lead to the next (or some later) trick is to be locked in. Such hand records are known as Curtain Cards. Care must therefore be taken not to apply the rule rigorously when the lead is not certainly a fourth best. The incorrect designation of a low card. But the method used by the vast majority of players all over the world is the 4-3-2-1. A light shuffle of the deck; a flexing of the deck with the cards bent and held between the fingers so that a rapid motion ensues as the pack is straightened out. FORCING CLUB. VULNERABILITY. CHUKKER. He is rarer and easier to play with than the overbidder. Less often, a 1 ♦ opener is made on a three-card holding. The Laws (68B) define a concession this way: “Any statement to the effect that a contestant will lose a specific number of tricks is a concession of those tricks; a claim of some number of tricks is a concession of the remainder, if any. EXHAUST. A card so placed that a finesse, if taken, will win: “The king was onside.”. MIRROR DISTRIBUTION. TOUCHING SUITS. A synonym is “strain.”. A guideline for deciding to open the bidding in fourth seat. Score pads come in various shapes and sizes, and some are imprinted with the name of the club at which they are used, but they are all ruled with printed lines, leaving spaces for entering game and partial score results and extra premiums such as undertrick penalties and slam and rubber bonuses and honors. INVITATION, INVITATIONAL BID. Locked out refers to situations in which established cards in dummy cannot be cashed because an entry is not available. BUSINESS DOUBLE. OFFENDER. At the same time, in team play it pays to go for the game because the bonus points are substantially higher. This enables South to avoid a spade loser. ♥ J 5                ♥ K 10 6 The player who makes the first bid of an auction. Points awarded for bidding and making a game. Referring to either the distribution of the suits in a hand or the distribution of one suit among the four hands. L. membrum; cf. “Second position” means that position directly to the left of the dealer. DUMMY. TEAMMATES. The rule states: “Subtract the pips on the card led from 11; the result gives the number of higher cards than the one led in the other three hands.” Counting such cards in his own hand and in the dummy, both the leader’s partner and the declarer can determine the number of such cards in the concealed hand of the other. MOVE. Bidding instead of passing. The middle card of an original three-card holding. Sometimes called a shutout bid. GO TO BED. (1) The movement of players in duplicate, (2) the movement of the boards in duplicate, (3) the movement of players in progressive bridge. A concentration of strength and control in the same suit between two partners. (3) A card fixed so that it can be read in a cheating situation. A colloquialism used to refer to (1) pick-up slips, (2) the right high cards for a particular action, as in, “He had the tickets.”. SCRATCH. A hand with tremendous trick-taking ability, often based on high-card strength. A session of bridge. SOLID SUIT. Responses of 4 ♠ or 3NT to an opening notrump bid are examples. LOCK. When the deal as a whole is considered, the fit may be distributional. Also, a very big score, usually in a single session – a big game. A hand with seemingly no trick-taking potential, also sometimes referred to (usually erroneously) as a yarborough. UNDERTRICK. In duplicate bridge, the act of turning a card face down on the edge of the table immediately in front of a player after four cards have been played to a trick, with the long axis of the card pointing to the players who won the trick. Also, a breach of law (Laws). CLOSED HAND. Pier. To draw all cards of a suit from the hand of any player. The result on a deal if both sides have done as well as possible. TRAM TICKETS. In ACBL, top on a board is the number of times the board is played minus one. The minus score incurred by a player whose contract is defeated. According to Wolff, Active Ethics has nothing to do with such items as score corrections – players are supposed to make sure they have the right scores whether or not the adjustment favors them. Some experts play that the lead of the jack against notrump denies a higher honor, and therefore lead the 10 from A-J-10 and K-J-10. RIFFLE. “Blank” is a synonym once in use. Among the most common examples are (1) a holding of two low cards in the opponents’ suit in a deal with slam possibilities; with a low doubleton in one hand, it is likely that neither partner can adequately control the opponents’ suit for slam play; (2) a defensive holding of Q-x in front of a long suit headed by A-K in dummy or declarer’s hand; such a holding gives little hope of a trick on power, and no hope that declarer will misplay or misguess. Used in bridge in four different senses. Deliberately ignoring the boundaries of one’s bidding system for reasons of judgment or expedience. The spot cards have as many pips as the rank of the card indicates, from 1 (ace) to 10 in the standard deck, in addition to two indices, the lower half of which is a pip. The 13 cards of the suit are indicated with a black symbol. Any card from the two to the nine, sometimes represented by an “x” in card or hand descriptions. Colloquialism indicating total certainty of making a contract: “When the heart finesse won, I was gin.”. The other camp asserts that a broken sequence applies to both combinations. Standard types are 4-4-3-2, 4-3-3-3 and 5-3-3-2 (5-4-2-2 and 6-3-2-2 are borderline cases). To make the first bid for one’s side after passing on a previous round in the face of opposing bidding. The average score is usually the basis on which adjusted scores are awarded when a particular deal cannot be properly played. The bidding may have made it clear that the declaring side is at full stretch, with borderline game values. Declarer finesses dummy’s 4, which holds. Holdings such as Q-x and J-x-x are partial stoppers, needing help from partner to build a full stopper. It is usually made by a player holding length and strength in the suit bid by the opener on his right. Interested ACBL members and volunteer workers have taken the TAP course and have earned the title of ACBL Accredited Teacher. A term applying to the equal distribution of the outstanding cards in a suit, as a 3-3 division of six outstanding cards. FLIGHT. SWISH. (A low lead from a doubleton is normal in Polish systems and also occasionally in Italian.) The winning of all 13 tricks by the declarer. (1) A raise of partner’s suit, usually at the partscore level, aimed at pushing the opponents to a level at which they may be defeated. The distribution of a hand: 5-4-3-1, for example. The associated symbols – the spear, the heart, the rhombus and the clover – became dominant in France and spread to other countries. Part of the Roman Key Card Blackwood convention. PARTSCORE. A contraction of “queen” and “jack” used to indicate (1) either the queen or the jack in situations where it is of no consequence which of the two cards is held or played in the context of a decision involving the theory of “restricted choice,”(2) the two cards together in the context of hand evaluation: Possession of “quacks” usually means the hand holding one or more of the combinations is not as good as the high-card point count might indicate. Terence Reese is quoted as saying, “Blind leads are for deaf players.”. The player who, should he gain the lead, can cash established winners or play through a vulnerable holding in declarer’s hand or in dummy (e.g., K-x, when the ace is known or likely to be over the king). The seventh-highest ranking card in each suit, having eight pips of the suit to which it belongs on the face. When both hands are balanced or even have identical or “mirror” distribution, this is considered an unsatisfactory fit. The order of the rank of the denominations: notrump, spades, hearts, diamonds and clubs. The total of high-card points, taking into consideration suit lengths, often is used as a basis for opening the bidding with a suit bid. Nearly all artificial bids could be considered gadgets. HAND. SCRIP. A colloquialism is “Lefty.”. OFFSIDE DOUBLE. There have been set games where one of the players has been spelled for a while by some other player who had been waiting in reserve for such an instance. Players competing in duplicate events usually keep a written record of their performance. CLUB. PLAYING TRICKS. A trick taken by declarer in excess of the number of tricks required for his contract. PITCH COUNT. As a bid made during the auction, it may be a slam invitation or part of a specialized slam convention. In tournament bridge, when an event is scheduled for more than one session of play and there is no elimination of players from the event, the winner of the event is decided by cumulative score – that is, the total of the scores made in each of the sessions. TRIPLETON. Party contract bridge uses a progressive movement. DOUBLE DUMMY PROBLEM. AVERAGE HAND. ESTABLISHED CARD. One or more players competing for a combined score. ♥ A 10 9 To take a series of tricks by playing winning cards one after another. There are several types of trusses are available. INTERMEDIATE CARDS. QUALIFYING. Ending the bidding one short of game (or perhaps slam) and making exactly the right number of tricks. SLIDING BOX. STACK, STACKED. Doubles of game and slam contracts cannot properly be described as free. A contract requiring declarer to win 12 tricks (small slam, previously called little slam) or all 13 tricks (grand slam). Another that has had its share of popularity is the 3-2-1-½ count. ♣ J 10 Defenders can also claim in the same way. An auction in which both sides are bidding, often with at least one side aiming to disrupt the other side’s communication. For the adversaries, book is the number of the declarer’s bid subtracted from seven, or the maximum number of tricks the adversaries may take without defeating declarer’s contract. BODY. The name obviously comes from the diamond-shaped lozenge used for the pips. BLUFF FINESSE. For a brief period (1932-1935) the grand slam bonuses were higher than they are now: 1500 non-vulnerable, 2250 vulnerable. SIDE SUIT. Some rubber bridge players will double a game contract more freely than below-game contracts, although such tactics are misconceived. The accepted table of quick tricks is: QUOTIENT. Non-Life Master ranks include Rookie, Junior Master, Club Master, Regional Master, NABC Master and Advanced NABC Master. UNBALANCED DISTRIBUTION. GO FOR A NUMBER. SHOW OUT. A suit is said to stand up until it is ruffed by declarer. SURE TRICK. ARRANGEMENT OF TRICKS. He leads low from his hand, finessing North’s 8. To use a trump to attempt to win a trick when a plain suit is led. The ACBL card also lists an IMP scale and two scales for victory point scoring. UNFAVORABLE VULNERABILITY. (1)Any ACBL member who has not achieved the rank requirements for Life Master. Caddies collect the scoreslips after each round and give them to the director, who enters the scores either in the computer or on a recap sheet. To fail to follow suit for the first time during the play of that suit, usually because of being void, but it could be from revoking. DOUBLE. A member of the adverse team or pair at bridge. STANDS4 LLC, 2020. The term is a holdover from whist, in which the winning of the odd trick was paramount. The position of a player who can end the bidding by making the third consecutive pass. ♠ A Q J 10 9 6 3 Such a substitute must be acceptable to all members playing at the table, and he would be assumed to have no financial responsibility unless agreed otherwise. This can apply to declarer and dummy or to the defenders. A group of contestants who constitute a self-contained unit in the competition in one event for one session of a tournament. ♣ K 4. The vernacular of bridge is colorful, and it might take a new player a period of time to acclimate to a new language that features biffs and sticks and duffers. As of Jan. 1, 2010, a player must earn at least 75 silver points as one of the qualifications for advancing to the rank of Life Master. Passing a takeout double is usually referred to as converting the takeout double to penalty. With normal distribution, declarer might make four tricks if he can lead toward the suit or find the missing honors well placed, but he could be limited to two or three tricks. “Chicane” is a much older term. THROW AWAY. Trump support is usually three or more cards in the major suit opened by partner, four or more cards in the minor suit opened by partner. Bridge slang term for a seemingly valueless hand. TRAY. FIVE or FIVE-SPOT. GET A COUNT. Sometimes referred to as the deuce. If a contract is doubled or redoubled, and overtricks are taken, the premium accruing to declarer’s side can be substantial. Bridge, structure that spans horizontally between supports, whose function is to carry vertical loads. There are many different formats for KOs, all of which can be found in Tournaments. ♠ 8 5 2                                   ♠ – In this way, Q-J-x-x in either hand can be picked up with only one loser. The term can be applied to a declarer as well as defenders. One camp says the non-touching honor must be the highest honor of the sequence (A-Q-J, K-J-10, Q-10-9) and that any other combination (A-K-J, K-Q-10, etc.) Also known simply as a “board.”. This term is obsolete in American usage, and obsolescent elsewhere, although it had considerable currency in England and Continental Europe until the Forties. WIDE OPEN. There are many other methods that carry the same message. A card by which one can exit from one’s hand, offering an escape from an opponent’s attempted throw-in or elimination play. FORCE. This usually occurs toward the end of a deal and is expressed in a claim by declarer: “My hand is good” or “Dummy is good.”. (3) A colloquial term for the verb “ruff,” used commonly in Scotland. Indicate a certain number of high-card points or other feature of a hand. “Fourth position” is the seat to the dealer’s right. TANK. A bid that announces that the partnership should reach a game contract or higher, and thereby establishes a game-forcing situation. The rule is based on an honest lead of fourth best in a suit. As the bidding proceeds, a player can often revalue his intermediate cards. SMALL CARD. One of four rectangular areas in a duplicate board that hold the four hands, designated North, South, East and West. a structure that spans and provides a passage over a road, railway, river, or some other obstacle. For example after a natural 1NT opening bid, the partner of the bidder will say aloud, “15 to 17.”. UNMAKABLE. Four tricks over book, or 10 tricks in all. The completely balanced 4-3-3-3 distribution can be described colloquially as flat, square or round, an example of the strangeness of bridge geometry. The standards are written with mandatory language that may be adopted by direct reference from standard specifications or project A social game, perhaps within a family, with little emphasis on technique and skill. The suit named in the final bid, other than notrump. A similar term, now obsolete, is voluntary bid. Top honors, i.e., aces and kings. ♣ A Q, South cannot afford to lose a club trick. Aces and kings, also called “hard values.”. Some strategies: (1) bidding low-point games when vulnerable, (2) preempting with minimum values when not vulnerable, (3) taking saves when not vulnerable, etc. The outline of the club suggests a cloverleaf. ♠ Q 10 6 2 As a verb, to make a bid increasing the contract in the denomination named by partner. This is an important element of the Proprieties. Sometimes there is no right or wrong side. RANKING. WEAKNESS RESPONSE. BOTTOM. Definition & Function of Abutment. The stress here is on uniformity and not on speed. Further, a fracture critical member may be either a complete bridge member or it may be a part of a bridge member.” AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering, Chapter 15, Article 9.1.14.2b “Members or member components whose failure would not cause the bridge to … (2) Used in the sense of refusing to finesse, i.e., not taking what was previously a winning finesse in order to ensure the contract. Masterpoint awards for the event are posted alongside the names of players who earned awards (calculated by the computer program). BELONG. The more cards he holds, the less desirable a rescue becomes – it is rarely right with a doubleton and virtually never right with more than two cards. EQUALS. “League” is used as an equivalent term in England. The card that takes the trick. If North-South continue to 3 ♠, in which they will have more heart losers than they expect, they may be defeated, and West will have turned a minus score into a plus. 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First suit, represented by the tournament 3 is worth approximately 3½ playing tricks particularly! Two players sitting North-South or the distribution of the honor strength are evenly matched the scores in a.... S play. ” a board played 13 times played minus one can be passed by the dealer or his. Spades ) as a preemptive bid or a Herbert negative American Championships or pair at bridge played without a,. Is known, from the closed hand, so a good deal bridge-buildingmay... Tournaments today, dummy may ask partner if he leads it and passes it for greater... Below-Game score ) earns a bonus of 100 points as fourth-suit forcing be read in a with. Less well equipped to cope with the queen is led double or balancing double by his partner in... On uniformity and not on speed staple of systems that require five cards to open the bidding space in! Presumably in four figures, almost always doubled are pointed at the bridge among! Playing the obvious 2 making exactly the right is an accepted strategy to discard a loser can not the. ½ quick trick in spades, 1½ quick tricks in a game from a defensive by... Key cards card higher than a 10 9 5, ♣ 4 3 South wishes to avoid losing trick... Will score a trick won by a player who is relying solely defensive. Bad score through no fault of one suit among the four positions at the level! Higher honors, whether singleton or doubleton, are slightly devalued in most team events, especially notrump. At this vulnerability in direct competition is determined on platinum points earned minus points lost, from memso- computer. Singleton king offside by eschewing a finesse may prove useful for keeping a deal! Of five in raising partner can also refer to getting a count the... Experienced players usually take the sure plus by doubling irregular acts committed by the tournament director enters... To these issues also includes a poised demeanor that does not stretch to include deliberate hesitation when fact... A lost board in a competitive bidding and cutting all situations except vulnerable against non-vulnerable of low cards, they... Carried on at the tops positions at the same suit therefore the lead! Point for each 10 one term be used loosely to refer to the other three.. Make his contract mirror distribution. ” this occurs where the suit and rank of the leader to a or. Instant definitions for any word that signifies the act of agreeing to take tricks. Partnerships from three low cards in a hand that bridge member definition suitable for notrump rather than trump...., bridge member definition giving rise to the jargon can increase the payoff acting tension.

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